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In this Section
- Office of the Scientific Director
- Office of the Clinical Director
- NIAAA Laboratories
- Section on Clinical Psychoneuroendocrinology and Neuropsychopharmacology (CPN)
- Laboratory of Behavioral & Genomic Neuroscience
- Laboratory of Clinical & Translational Studies
- Laboratory for Integrative Neuroscience
- LIN - Office of the Chief
- LIN - Section on Neuronal Structure
- LIN - Section of Synaptic Pharmacology (SP)
- Laboratory of Liver Diseases
- Laboratory of Membrane Biochemistry and Biophysics
- Laboratory of Metabolic Control
- Laboratory of Molecular Physiology
- Laboratory of Molecular Signaling
- Laboratory of Neurogenetics
- Laboratory for Neuroimaging
- Laboratory of Physiologic Studies
- Chemical Biology Research Branch (joint lab with NIDA)
- Office of Laboratory Animal Science (OLAS)
- Research and Training
- Clinical Trials at NIAAA/NIH
LCTS - Section on Human Psychopharmacology (HP)
Section on Human Psychopharmacology, LCTS
National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism
National Institutes of Health
10 Center Drive, Room 10-CRC/2-2352: MSC 1540
Bethesda, MD 20892-1540
What we do
The Section conducts studies characterizing the pharmacokinetics and CNS pharmacodynamics of alcohol in humans using behavioral, neuroendocrine, electrophysiological and functional imaging measures. These studies, conducted in social and high-risk drinkers, enable the evaluation of genetic and environmental risk factors influencing the acute and adaptive responses to alcohol. The Section is also conducting studies to develop human laboratory paradigms that can be used to screen novel potential treatments for alcoholism in terms of their ability to alter the pharmacological effects of alcohol and/or alcohol self-administration behavior.
Two alcohol administration methods form the foundation of our work: (1) the alcohol clamp, and (2) computer-assisted self-infusion of ethanol (CASE). Both methods employ intravenous (IV) administration of alcohol solutions, which when combined with a physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model for ethanol, results in systemic (and therefore brain) alcohol exposures that are extremely precise and well-controlled. These methods provide a unique platform for studies evaluating the influence of risk factors including sex, age, drinking history and genetic polymorphisms on alcohol responses and alcohol self-administration behavior in human laboratory studies.
Vijay A. Ramchandani, Ph.D.
Vijay Ramchandani obtained his undergraduate degree in Pharmaceutical Sciences from Bombay University in India in year 1990 and Ph.D. in Pharmaceutical Sciences from Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA in 1996. From 1996 to 2002, he worked at the Alcohol Research Center at Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN, first as a Research Associate and then as an Assistant Scientist and Part-time Assistant Professor. In 2003, Dr. Ramchandani joined NIAAA as a Staff Scientist in the Laboratory of Clinical and Translational Studies (LCTS), and in 2007, he became Chief of the Unit on Human Physiology and Pharmacokinetics. In March 2010, Dr. Ramchandani was appointed as a Tenure-track Clinical Investigator and Acting Chief of the Section on Human Psychopharmacology in LCTS.
Bethany Stangl, Ph.D.
Dr. Stangl joined the Section on Human Psychopharmacology in September 2010. She earned her undergraduate degree at Dickinson College and her PhD in cognitive neuroscience at The George Washington University where she used a clinical trials experiment to observe how DHEA and hormones influence cognitive behavior in postmenopausal women. Her current work involves the Computer-Assisted Self-Administration of Ethanol (CASE) protocol that uses this IV alcohol method in both a Free Access and Progressive-Ratio paradigm. She is also combining CASE with guided imagery scripts to understand the relationship between acute stress and alcohol cues and alcohol-seeking behavior. Other interests include studying the relationship between early life stress, genetics, and risk for substance use disorders in humans.
Joshua Gowin, Ph.D.
Dr. Gowin joined the SHP in August of 2013. He earned his M.S. in 2009 and his Ph.D. in 2011 in behavioral neuroscience and psychopharmacology from the University of Texas Health Science Center in Houston. While there he learned to use acute and chronic administration of drugs to examine behavioral, physiological and neuroendocrine effects. Starting in 2012, he did a one year fellowship at the University of California San Diego where he became a scan operator for fMRI studies and learned to analyze imaging data. He is interested in exploring the neural correlates of risk-taking as a lens to understand pathologic behaviors such as substance use disorders and aggression.
Lauren Blau, B.S.
Lauren Blau received her B.S. in Psychology from Trinity College in May 2014 and joined the Human Psychopharmacology section shortly after graduation. She is currently working on the Computer-Assisted Self-Administration of Ethanol (CASE) protocol. Her duties include recruiting and screening healthy volunteers, administering a series of psychological evaluations, and running the experimental sessions for the study protocol. Her interests include public health, mental health and preventative medicine. In the future Lauren hopes to pursue a graduate degree in health psychology.
Courtney Vaughan, B.S., B.A.
Courtney Vaughan received her B.S. in Psychology and B.A. in Gender, Sexuality and Women’s Studies from Virginia Commonwealth University in May 2015. She is a part of the Undergraduate Scholarship Program (UGSP) which provides a scholarship up to $20,000 per academic year in return for a service commitment to the National Institutes of Health upon graduation. She joined the Human Psychopharmacology section shortly thereafter. Courtney is involved in the Computer-Self Assisted Self-Administration of Ethanol (CASE) protocol where her duties include screening participants, running experimental sessions, and administering psychological evaluations. Her research interests include nicotine and alcohol addiction, mindfulness, women’s health, and eating behavior. Courtney plans to pursue a Ph.D. in clinical psychology.
Anuj Shah, B.A.
Anuj Shah received his B.A. in Chemistry from Williams College in June 2015 and joined the Human Psychopharmacology section shortly thereafter. His previous undergraduate research focused on the effects of early life stress on the development of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in zebrafish. Currently, he is assisting with the Computer-Assisted Self-Administration of Ethanol (CASE) protocol by recruiting and screening healthy volunteers, administering psychological evaluations, and running experimental sessions for the study. He also assists with PET imaging analysis. Anuj is interested in understanding the effects of stress on the risk of developing psychiatric disorders, from drug pharmacokinetics to the activity of neural systems and circuits implicated in various mental illnesses. He plans to pursue graduate work in this field as well.
Dr. Vatsalya has been a Special Volunteer since February 2014, after completing his fellowship training in the Section (2009-2014). He is currently working as a research scientist with Prof. Craig McClain in the Department of Medicine at the University of Louisville School of Medicine, Louisville KY. His interests include clinical research focusing on treatment assessment, physiological and behavioral evaluations; age and sex factors; and genetic expression in alcohol pharmacology and addiction; and viral comorbidity.
Jia Yan, Ph.D., M.S., C.G.C.
Dr. Yan joined the Section on Human Psychopharmacology in October 2012 after completing an M.S. in Genetic Counseling and Ph.D. in Human and Molecular Genetics through a dual degree program at Virginia Commonwealth University. Her training integrated clinical genetic counseling experience with research on alcohol dependence using statistical genetics methods at the Virginia Institute for Psychiatric and Behavioral Genetics. Her previous work investigated the use of genetic information in clinical risk prediction for alcohol dependence. She is currently focusing on the quantitative analysis of genetic and phenotypic data in the LCTS using genome-wide and systems-based approaches. She joined the Johns Hopkins University McKusick-Nathans Institute of Genetic Medicine clinical genetics team in July 2015 and is a practicing genetic counselor in the pediatric and adult medical genetics clinic. She is continuing to do research and see patients, with the aim of integrating genetic counseling and research on alcohol use disorders.
Joanna Sells, B.A.
Joanna completed her BA in Psychology with a Minor in Forensics from American University in Washington, DC. She later joined LCTS as a Technical IRTA Fellow where she coordinated a study on the treatment of alcoholism and post-traumatic stress disorder from 2010-2012. In 2012, Joanna began her PhD studies in Medical & Clinical Psychology at Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences in Bethesda, Maryland. In her efforts to improve mental health, alcohol, and drug policy, Joanna served as an intern in the Executive Office of the President, Office of National Drug Control Policy. Her research at NIH and USUHS focuses on developing cognitive interventions for addiction using mobile technology. Joanna plans to use her interdisciplinary (psychology, nursing, medicine, and public health) training to cultivate the relationship between clinical research and public policy.
Vatsalya Vatsalya (2009-2014)
Jia Yan (2012-2015)
Postbaccalaureate/Technical IRTA (Intramural Research Training Award) Fellows
Mike Hoefer (2004-2005)
Nina Saxena (2005-2006)
Shilpa Kumar (2006-2007)
Seth Eappen (2007-2008)
Julnar Issa (2008-2010)
Megan Cooke (2009-2011)
Molly Zametkin (2010-2014)
Marion Coe (2011-2013)
Jonathan Westman (2013-2015)
Kristin Corey (2014-2015)
Elizabeth Edenberg (Summer 2003)
Molly Carroll (Summer 2004)
Satjit Brar (Summer 2007)
Aishini Thiyagarajan (Summer 2008, 2009, 2010)
EB Grasser (Summer 2009)
Veronica Schmidt (2010-2014)
Adnan Durrani (2014-2015)
Nurse Trainees from Kurihama Medical and Addiction Center, Japan
Kaori Abe (Fall 2011)
Tomoko Nakao (Spring 2012)
Tohru Numano (Fall 2012)
Ryo Chinen (Fall 2013)
Haruna Kawamata (Summer/Fall 2014)
08-AA-0178: Computer-Assisted Self-Administration of Ethanol (CASE) in Humans (PI: Vijay A. Ramchandani, PhD)
11-AA-0180: Genetics of the acute response to alcohol in humans (PI: Vijay A. Ramchandani, PhD).
13-AA-0061: OPRM1 A118G SNP Effect on Striatal Dopamine Response to an IV Opiate (PI: Vijay A. Ramchandani, PhD).
- Li T-K, Beard JD, Orr WE, Kwo PY, Ramchandani VA. Gender and ethnic differences in alcohol metabolism. Alcohol Clin Exp Res 22:771-772 (1998).
- Kwo PY, Ramchandani VA, O'Connor S, Amann D, Carr LG, Sandrasegaran K, Kopecky K, Li T-K. Gender differences in alcohol metabolism: Relationship to liver volume and effect of adjusting for lean body mass. Gastroenterology 115:1552-1557 (1998).
- Ramchandani VA, Bolane J, Li T-K, O'Connor S. A physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model for alcohol facilitates rapid BrAC clamping. Alcohol Clin Exp Res 23:617-623 (1999).
- Ramchandani VA, O'Connor S, Blekher T, Kareken D, Morzorati S, Nurnberger Jr. J, Li T-K. A preliminary study of acute responses to clamped alcohol concentration and family history of alcoholism. Alcohol Clin Exp Res 23:1320-1330 (1999).
- Li T-K, Beard JD, Orr WE, Kwo PY, Ramchandani VA, Thomasson HR. Variation in ethanol pharmacokinetics and perceived gender and ethnic differences in alcohol elimination. Alcohol Clin Exp Res 24:415-416 (2000).
- O'Connor S, Ramchandani VA Li T-K. PBPK modeling as a basis for achieving a steady BrAC of 60±5 mg% within ten minutes. Alcohol Clin Exp Res 24:426-427 (2000).
- Ramchandani VA, Kwo PY, Li T-K. Influence of food and food composition on alcohol elimination rates in healthy men and women. J Clin Pharmacol 41:1345-1350 (2001).
- Li T-K, Yin S-J, Crabb DW, O’Connor S, Ramchandani VA. Genetic and environmental influences on alcohol metabolism in humans. Alcohol Clin Exp Res 25:136-144 (2001).
- Sato N, Lindros KO, Baraona E, Ikejima K, Mezey E, Jarvelainen H, Ramchandani VA. Gender differences in alcohol-related organ injury. Alcohol Clin Exp Res 25:49S-53S (2001).
- Blekher T, Beard JD, O'Connor S, Orr WE, Ramchandani VA, Miller K, Yee RD, Li T-K. Response of saccadic eye movements to alcohol in African American and non-Hispanic White college students. Alcohol Clin Exp Res 26:232-238 (2002).
- Morzorati SL, Ramchandani VA, Flury L, Li T-K, O’Connor S. Self-reported subjective perception of intoxication reflects family history for alcoholism when breath alcohol levels are constant. Alcohol Clin Exp Res 26:1299-1306 (2002).
- Blekher T, Ramchandani VA, Flury L, Foroud T, Kareken D, Yee R, Li T-K, O’Connor S. Saccadic eye movements are associated with a family history of alcoholism at baseline and after exposure to alcohol. Alcohol Clin Exp Res 26:1568-1573 (2002).
- Ramchandani VA, Flury L, Morzorati S, Kareken D, Blekher T, Foroud T, Li T-K, O'Connor S. Recent Drinking History: Association with family history of alcoholism and the acute response to alcohol during a 60 mg% clamp. J Stud Alcohol 63:734-744 (2002).
- Morzorati SL, Ramchandani VA, Li T-K, O'Connor S. A method to achieve and maintain steady tate blood alcohol levels in rats using a physiologically-based pharmacokinetic model. Alcohol 28:189-195 (2002).
- Neumark YD, Friedlander Y, Durst R, Leitersdorf E, Jaffe D, Ramchandani VA, O’Connor S, Carr LG, Li T-K . Alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH2) polymorphisms influence alcohol elimination rates in a male Jewish population. Alcohol Clin Exp Res 28:10-14 (2004).
- Kareken DA, Claus ED, Sabri M, Dzemidzic M, Kosobud AEK, Radnovich AJ, Hector D, Ramchandani VA, O’Connor SJ, Lowe M, Li T-K. Alcohol-related olfactory cues activate the nucleus accumbens and ventral tegmental area in high-risk drinkers: Preliminary findings. Alcohol Clin Exp Res 28:550-557 (2004).
- Khaole NCO, Ramchandani VA, Viljoen DL, Li T-K. Systemic alcohol exposure during free-choice drinking in women with or without a child with fetal alcohol syndrome. Alcohol Alcohol 39:503-508 (2004).
- Plawecki MH, DeCarlo RA, Ramchandani VA, O’Connor S. Estimation of ethanol infusion profile to produce a specified BrAC time course using physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models. IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society International Conference Proceedings. 1:778-781 (2004).
- Ramchandani VA, O’Connor S, Neumark YD, Zimmermann US, Morzorati SL, de Wit H. The alcohol clamp: Applications, challenges and new Directions – An RSA 2004 symposium summary. Alcohol Clin Exp Res 30:155-164 (2006).
- Han J-J, Plawecki MH, Doerschuk PC, Ramchandani VA, O’Connor S. Ordinary differential equation models for ethanol pharmacokinetics based on anatomy and physiology. IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society International Conference Proceedings. (article 4029183) 1:5033-5036 (2006).
- Plawecki MH, DeCarlo R, Ramchandani VA, O’Connor S. Improved transformation of morphometric measurements for a priori parameter estimation in a physiologically-based pharmacokinetic model of ethanol. Biomedical Signal Processing and Control 2:97-110 (2007).
- Salloum JB, Ramchandani VA, Bodurka J, Rawlings R, Momenan R, George D, Hommer DW. Blunted rostral anterior cingulate response during a simplified decoding task of negative emotional facial expressions in alcoholic patients. Alcohol Clin Exp Res 31:1490-1504 (2007).
- Gilman J, Ramchandani VA, Davis M, Bjork JM, Hommer DW. Why we like to drink: An fMRI study of the rewarding and anxiolytic effects of alcohol. J Neurosci. 28:4583-4591 (2008).
- Taylor RE, Raysor BR, Kwagyan J, Ramchandani VA, Kalu N, Powell-Davis M, Ferguson CL, Carr LG, Scott DM. Alterations in ethyl alcohol pharmacokinetics during oral consumption of commercial malt liquor beverages. Alcohol Clin Exp Res 32:2074-2080 (2008).
- Plawecki MH, Han JJ, Doerschuk PC, Ramchandani VA, O'Connor SJ. Physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models for ethanol. IEEE Trans Biomed Eng 55:2691-2700 (2008).
- Ramchandani VA, Plawecki M, Li T-K, O’Connor S. Intravenous ethanol infusions can mimic the time course of breath alcohol concentrations following oral alcohol administration in healthy volunteers. Alcohol Clin Exp Res 33:938-944 (2009).
- George DT, Herion D, Jones CL, Phillips MJ, Hersh J, Hill D, Heilig M, Ramchandani VA, Geyer C, Spero DE, Singley ED, O’Malley SS, Bishai R, Rawlings RR, Kunos G. Rimonabant (SR141716) has no effect on alcohol self-administration or endocrine measures in nontreatment-seeking heavy alcohol drinkers. Psychopharmacology 208:37-44 (2010).
- Lee J, Ramchandani VA, Hamazaki K, Engleman EA, McBride WJ, Kim H-Y. A critical evaluation of influence of ethanol and diet on salsolinol enantiomers in humans and rats. Alcohol Clin Exp Res 34:242-250 (2010).
- Ramchandani VA, Umhau J, Pavon FJ, Ruiz-Velasco V, Margas W, Sun H, Damadzic R, Eskay R, Schoor M, Thorsell A, Schwandt ML, Sommer WH, George DT, Parsons LH, Herscovitch P, Hommer D, Heilig M. A genetic determinant of the striatal dopamine response to alcohol. Mol Psychiatry 16:809-817 (2011).
- Roh S, Matsushita S, Hara S, Maesato H, Matsui T, Suzuki G, Miyakawa T, Ramchandani VA, Li T-K, Higuchi S. Role of GABRA2 in moderating subjective responses to alcohol. Alcohol Clin Exp Res 35:400-407 (2011).
- Vatsalya V, Issa JE, Hommer DW, Ramchandani VA. Pharmacodynamic effects of intravenous alcohol on hepatic and gonadal hormones: Influence of age and sex. Alcohol Clin Exp Res 36:207-213 (2012).
- Snell L, Ramchandani VA, Saba, L, Herion D, Heilig M, George D, Pridzun L, Helander A, Schwandt M, Phillips M, Hoffman P, Tabakoff B. The Biometric Measurement of Alcohol Consumption. Alcohol Clin Exp Res 36:332-341 (2012).
- Gilman JM, Smith AR, Ramchandani VA, Momenan R, Hommer DW. The effect of intravenous alcohol on the neural correlates of risky decision-making. Addiction Biology 17:465-478 (2012).
- Gilman JM, Ramchandani VA, Crouss T, Hommer DW. Subjective and neural responses to intravenous alcohol in young adults with light and heavy drinking patterns. Neuropsychopharmacology 37:467-477 (2012).
- Kalu N, Ramchandani VA, Marshall V, Scott D, Ferguson C, Cain G, Taylor R. Heritability of level of response and association with recent drinking history in non-alcohol dependent drinkers. Alcohol Clin Exp Res 36:1034-1041 (2012).
- Huang M-C, Schwandt ML, Ramchandani VA, George DT, Heilig M. Impact of multiple types of childhood trauma exposure on risk of psychiatric comorbidity among alcoholic inpatients. Alcohol Clin Exp Res 36:1099-1107 (2012). Schwandt ML, Heilig MA, Hommer DW, George DT, Ramchandani VA. Childhood trauma exposure and alcohol dependence severity in adulthood: mediation by emotional abuse severity and neuroticism. Alcohol Clin Exp Res 37:984-992 (2013).
- Schwandt ML, Heilig MA, Hommer DW, George DT, Ramchandani VA. Childhood trauma exposure and alcohol dependence severity in adulthood: mediation by emotional abuse severity and neuroticism. Alcohol Clin Exp Res 37:984-992 (2013).
- Leggio L, Schwandt ML, Oot EN, Dias AA, Ramchandani VA. Fasting-induced increase in plasma ghrelin is blunted by intravenous alcohol administration: A within-subject placebo-controlled study. Psychoneuroendocrinology 38:3085-3091 (2013).
- Marshall VJ, Ramchandani VA, Kalu N, Kwaygan J, Scott DM, Ferguson CL, Taylor RE. Evaluation of the influence of ADH polymorphisms on alcohol elimination rates measured using the alcohol clamp. Alcohol Clin Exp Res 38:51-59 (2014).
- Huang M-C, Schwandt ML, Chester J, Kirchhoff A, Kao C-F, Liang T, Tapocik J, Ramchandani VA, George DT, Hodgkinson C, Goldman D, Heilig M. FKBP5 Moderates Alcohol Withdrawal Severity: Human Genetic Association and Functional Validation in Knockout Mice. Neuropsychopharmacology 39:2029-2038 (2014).
- Mitchell MC, Teigen EL, Ramchandani VA. Absorption and peak blood alcohol concentration after drinking beer, wine or spirits. Alcohol Clin Exp Res 38:1200-1204 (2014).
- Vatsalya V, Momenan R, Hommer DW, Ramchandani VA. Cardiac Reactivity during the ascending phase of Acute Intravenous Alcohol Exposure and Association with Subjective Perceptions of Intoxication in Social Drinkers. Alcohol Clin Exp Res 38:1247-1254 (2014).
- Gilman JM, Smith AR, Bjork JM, Ramchandani VA, Momenan R, Hommer DW. Cumulative gains enhance striatal response to reward opportunities in alcohol-dependent patients. Addict Biol, In press (2014). Epub: doi: 10.1111/adb.12147.
- Kwako LE, Schwandt ML, Sells JR, Ramchandani VA, Hommer DW, George DT, Sinha R, Heilig M. Methods for inducing alcohol craving in individuals with co-morbid alcohol dependence and posttraumatic stress disorder: behavioral and physiological outcomes. Addict Biol, In press (2014). Epub: doi: 10.1111/adb.12150.
- Hendershot CS, Claus ED, Ramchandani VA. Associations of OPRM1 A118G and alcohol sensitivity with intravenous alcohol self-administration in young adults. Addict Biol, In press (2014). Epub: doi: 10.1111/adb.12165.
- Strang NM, Claus ED, Ramchandani VA, Graff-Guerrero A, Boileau I, Hendershot CS. Dose-dependent effects of intravenous alcohol administration on cerebral blood flow in young adults. Psychopharmacology (Berl), In press (2014).
- Wallen GR, Brooks AT, Whiting B, Clark R, Krumlauf MC, Yang L, Schwandt ML, George DT, Ramchandani VA. The prevalence of sleep disturbance in alcoholics admitted for treatment: A target for chronic disease management. Fam Community Health 37:288-297 (2014).
- Spagnolo P, Ramchandani VA, Schwandt ML, Zhang L, Blaine S, Usala J, Diamond C, Phillips M, Momenan R, George DT, Heilig M,. Effects of naltrexone on neural and subjective response to alcohol in treatment-seeking alcohol dependent patients. Alcohol Clin Exp Res In press (2014).
Reviews and Book Chapters:
- Ramchandani VA, Bosron WF, Li T-K. Research advances in ethanol metabolism. Pathologie Biologie 49:676-682 (2001).
- Ramchandani VA. Genetic aspects of alcohol metabolism. In Alcohol in disease: Nutrient interactions and dietary intake (Watson RR and Preedy VR, ed). Boca Raton, CRC Press: 187-199 (2004).
- Ramchandani VA, O’Connor S. Studying alcohol elimination using the alcohol clamp method. Alcohol Research and Health 29:286-290 (2006).
- Heilig M, Thorsell A, Sommer WH, Hansson AC, Ramchandani VA, George DT, Hommer D, Barr CS. Translating the neuroscience of alcoholism into clinical treatments: From blocking the buzz to curing the blues. Neurosci Biobehav Rev 35:334-344 (2010).
- Hendler RA, Ramchandani VA, Gilman J, Hommer DW. Stimulant and sedative effects of alcohol. Curr Top Behav Neurosci 13:489-509 (2013).
- Zimmermann US, O’Connor S, Ramchandani VA. Modeling alcohol self-administration in the human laboratory. Curr Top Behav Neurosci 13:315-353 (2013).
- Ramchandani VA. Genetic aspects of alcohol metabolism. In Alcohol, Nutrition and Health Consequences (Watson RR, Preedy VR, Zibadi S, ed). New York, Humana Press:15-25 (2013).
- Ramchandani VA, Slattum PW, Patkar AA, Wu L-T, Lee JC, Mohanty M, Coe M, Li T-K. Psychopharmacology and the consequences of alcohol and drug interactions in older people. In: Substance Misuse and Older People, Crome I, Crome P, Rao T, Wu L-T (eds). Wiley: UK, In Press (2014).
Alcohol publications can also be found using the ETOH Database