Photo of Falk Lohoff, M.D.

Falk W. Lohoff, MD
Chief, Section on Clinical Genomics and Experimental Therapeutics (CGET)
Lasker Clinical Research Scholar
National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA)
National Institutes of Health (NIH)
10 Center Drive (10CRC/2-2352)
Bethesda, MD 20892-1540
Office: 301-827-1542
falk.lohoff@nih.gov

Dr. Falk Lohoff serves as the Chief of the Section on Clinical Genomics and Experimental Therapeutics (CGET). He received his medical degree from Humboldt University of Berlin in 2002, and completed residency training in psychiatry and a fellowship in neuropsychopharmacology at the University of Pennsylvania. He has been board certified in Psychiatry since 2007. He was Assistant Professor of Psychiatry and lab chief at the University of Pennsylvania from 2007-2014, after which he joined the NIH intramural program as a Lasker Clinical Research Scholar. Dr. Lohoff has worked on clinical trials in depression, bipolar disorder and anxiety disorders as well as addictions throughout his career at the University of Pennsylvania. He served as attending physician at the University of Pennsylvania and is currently senior attending at the NIH Clinical Center. His research is focused on translational medicine and spans areas of molecular genetics, epigenetics, imaging-genetics, pharmacogenetics and clinical experimental trials.

 

What we do

The Section on Clinical Genomics and Experimental Therapeutics (CGET) conducts translational preclinical and clinical studies related to the pathophysiology and treatment of alcohol use disorder. Our human clinical studies use cutting edge functional imaging, genetic, epigenetic, and pharmacogenetic approaches to investigate neurobiological mechanisms of alcohol use disorder and to explore novel targets for personalized treatments. Two areas currently under study include negative emotion regulation, cognitive impairments (such as deficits in working memory and response inhibition), and precision medicine in alcohol use disorder. One current study aims to (1) characterize endophenotypes of fear extinction and negative emotion processing in individuals with alcohol use disorder and early life stress, (2) identify neurobiological correlates of the overlap between early life stress and alcohol use disorder, (3) explore  biomarkers of disease risk and severity. Additionally, our clinical studies include early phase 1/phase 2 proof-of-concept studies of experimental therapeutics guided by molecular biomarker profiling. Translational projects focus on identifying molecular mechanisms involved in addictions, utilizing a wide array of methods including human population genetics, genome wide genotyping approaches, next-generation DNA and RNA sequencing and epigenetic/proteomic profiling.

 

CGET Highlights 

Recent Publications 

Methylomic profiling and replication implicates deregulation of PCSK9 in alcohol use disorder 

FW Lohoff, JL Sorcher, AD Rosen, KL Mauro, RR Fanelli, R Momenan, CA Hodgkinson, LF Vendruscolo, GF Koob,M Schwandt, DT George, IS Jones, A Holmes, Z Zhou, M-J Xu, B Gao, H Sun, MJ Phillips, C Muench and ZA Kaminsky

 

 

Current Protocols

15-AA-0127: (Epi)Genetic Modulators of fear extinction in Alcohol Dependence

For more information please call: (301)-827-0945

Or email: NIAAACGETResearch@mail.nih.gov

 

 

Current Projects 

  • Genetics of addictions
  • Genetics of alcohol withdrawal and endophenotypes of addictions
  • Imaging-genetics of alcohol dependence

 

Current Staff 

 
Christine Muench, Ph.D.
Post-Doctoral Visiting Fellow
telephone: 301.435.3494
Christine Muench photo
 
Christine Muench, Ph.D. joined CGET in July 2015. She earned a B.S. in Psychology with major concentrations on neuroscience, clinical psychology, and developmental psychopathology at Bielefeld University in Germany and a Ph.D. in Behavior, Cognition, and Neuroscience at American University. Christine’s prior research employed human laboratory models to investigate placebo mechanisms, cognitive and affective factors involved in smoking lapse to relapse progression. She is interested in using pharmacogenetic, cognitive, and neuroimaging approaches to investigate comorbid tobacco and alcohol use, as well as the relationship between (epi-) genetic factors, negative affect, and alcohol use. 
 
 
 
Jisoo Lee, Ph.D.
Post-Doctoral Visiting Fellow
telephone: 301.435.3494
 
Dr. Jisoo Lee
 
Jisoo Lee, Ph.D. joined CGET in April 2017. She earned a B.S. in Pharmacy at Chung-Ang University in South Korea and a M.S. and a Ph.D. in Pharmacology at Georgetown University. Her prior research employed molecular biology techniques with an emphasis on neuropharmacology to elucidate a molecular pathway of activity-dependent Amyloid Precursor Protein processing in Alzheimer’s disease. She is interested in understanding the pathophysiology and neurobiology of alcohol use disorder and studying therapeutics with epigenetic and pharmacological approaches.
 
 
 
Audrey Luo, B.S.
Post-Baccalaureate IRTA Fellow
telephone: 301.827.0945

audrey luo

Audrey Luo joined the CGET section in July 2017. She graduated from Yale University, where she majored in Psychology with a concentration in Neuroscience. Her undergraduate senior thesis involved examining the neural underpinnings of persistence in naturalistic goal pursuit and how individuals learn from task performance feedback. She has also conducted research on how face processing is altered by racial information and on attitudes towards mental illness in China. Her responsibilities as an IRTA include administering clinical assessments, assisting with neuroimaging, processing bio specimen samples and analyzing data.
 
 
 
Kelsey Mauro
Post-Baccalaureate IRTA Fellow
telephone: 301.451.3862
kelsey.mauro@nih.gov

 
Kelsey Mauro
 
Kelsey Mauro joined the CGET section in June 2016.She graduated from The George Washington University in May 2016, having studied Psychology with a focus in Cognitive Neuroscience. Her undergraduate research examined the neural mechanisms underlying language acquisition, and the relationship between executive functions and aphasia. She also assisted in projects aimed at identifying intellectual and functional outcomes following premature birth. As an IRTA, Kelsey now works with neuroimaging, coordinates experimental and screening visits, and administers clinical assessments.
 
 
 
Dan Rosoff, B.S., B.A.
Post-Baccalaureate IRTA Fellow
telephone: 301.451.9047
daniel.rosoff@nih.gov
 

Daniel Rosoff

Dan Rosoff joined the CGET section in February 2017.  He graduated from Brown University in May 2016 with degrees in Neuroscience and Economics.  His interests lie in elucidating the underlying neurobiological mechanisms involved in the progression of neuropsychiatric disease.  Dan’s responsibilities with CGET includes data collection and analysis, administering clinical assessments, coordinating screening visits, assisting with neuroimaging, and processing biological specimen samples.  

 
 
Monte Phillips
Biologist
telephone: 301.496.9765
monte.phillips@mail.nih.gov

Monte Phillips

Monte Phillips is involved in collection and processing of biospecimens of ongoing research protocols. She is involved in molecular profiling of patients and DNA/RNA processing. In addition, she collaborates with other clinical staff in research development, design, writing, and publication of research protocols, presentations, and manuscripts. She executes the laboratory portion of the research protocols such as centrifuging, aliquoting, freezing, and processing of human spinal tapped fluids, blood, and urine for research purposes. Monte maintains accurate records concerning experimental results, patient activities, sample inventories, and the shipping and distribution of samples. She also prepares research data by scoring and compiling test results, inputting data into computers, and performing tabulations and data reductions in order to assist in the analysis and interpretation of the research results.

 

 

Special Volunteer

 
Jill Sorcher, B.A.
Medical Student - Johns Hopkins School of Medicine
Baltimore, MD
Jill Sorcher
 
Jill Sorcher was a Postbaccalaureate IRTA Fellow in the CGET section from March 2016 until May 2017.  She graduated from the University of Pennsylvania, where she majored in Biological Basis of Behavior and minored in Chemistry.  Her responsibilities as a CGET IRTA included administering clinical assessments, coordinating screening visits, processing bio specimen samples and analyzing data, and writing manuscripts.  Jill is now a medical student at Johns Hopkins School of Medicine.  She will continue to collaborate on various projects with the CGET section.  
 
 

Past CGET Members 

 

Name 

Undergraduate Institution

Time with CGET 


 

Current Position 

Current Institution

 


 

Jill Sorcher, B.A.

University of Pennsylvania 

Post-Baccalaureate IRTA Fellow

2016-2017

Medical School

John Hopkins University School of Medicine

Baltimore, MD

 

Alison Rosen, B.S.

Brown University

Post-Baccalaureate IRTA Fellow

2015-2017 

 

Ph.D., Epidemiology

University of California, Los Angeles

Los Angeles, CA

 

Elizabeth Tawa, B.S.

Swarthmore College 

Post-Baccalaureate IRTA Fellow

2015-2016 

 

Ph.D., Neuroscience

Princeton University

Princeton, NJ

 

Sarah Grace Helton, B.A.

Vanderbilt University

Post-Baccalaureate IRTA Fellow

2014-2016 

 

Ph.D., Clinical Psychology

Rutgers University

New Brunswick, NJ

 

Rebecca R. Fanelli, Ph.D.

Post-Doctoroal Fellow

2015-2016 

 

Senior Country Approval Specialist,

PPD

Morrisville, NC 

 

Sam Hall, B.S.

University of Wisconsin-Madison

Post-Baccalaureate IRTA Fellow

2013-2015

 

Medical School

Medical College of Wisconsin

Milwaukee, WI

 

Nisha Dutta, B.S.

Duke University

Post-Baccalaureate IRTA Fellow

2014-2015 

 

Business Associate/Healthcare Consulting

ZS Associates, Inc

San Francisco/Silicon Valley, CA

 

 

 

 

Selected Publications

Search Pubmed for articles by Dr. Lohoff

  1. Genetic Variation in the Vesicular Monoamine Transporter 1 (VMAT1/SLC18A1) Gene and Alcohol Withdrawal Severity. Dutta N, Helton SG, Schwandt M, Zhu X, Momenan R, Lohoff FW. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2016 Mar;40(3):474-81. doi: 10.1111/acer.12991. Epub 2016 Feb 15. PMID: 26876819
  2. Pharmacogenetics of alcohol use disorders and comorbid psychiatric disorders. Helton SG, Lohoff FW. Psychiatry Res. 2015 Dec 15;230(2):121-9. doi: 10.1016/j.psychres.2015.09.019. Epub 2015 Sep 14. Review. PMID:26455758
     
  3. Resting-state functional connectivity and presynaptic monoamine signaling in Alcohol Dependence. Zhu X, Dutta N, Helton SG, Schwandt M, Yan J, Hodgkinson CA, Cortes CR, Kerich M, Hall S, Sun H, Phillips M, Momenan R, Lohoff FW. Hum Brain Mapp. 2015 Dec;36(12):4808-18. doi: 10.1002/hbm.22951. Epub 2015 Sep 14. PMID: 26368063
     
  4. Clarke TK, Weiss AR, Ferarro TN, Kampman KM, Dackis CA, Pettinati HM, O'brien  CP, Oslin DW, Lohoff FW, Berrettini WH. The dopamine receptor D2 (DRD2) SNP rs1076560 is associated with opioid addiction. Ann Hum Genet. 2014 Jan;78(1):33-9. doi: 10.1111/ahg.12046. Epub 2013 Nov 25. PubMed PMID: 24359476;  PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4013426.
  5. Clarke TK, Crist RC, Ang A, Ambrose-Lanci LM, Lohoff FW, Saxon AJ, Ling W, Hillhouse MP, Bruce RD, Woody G, Berrettini WH. Genetic variation in OPRD1 and the response to treatment for opioid dependence with buprenorphine in European-American females. Pharmacogenomics J. 2014 Jun;14(3):303-8. doi: 10.1038/tpj.2013.30. Epub 2013 Oct 15. PubMed PMID: 24126707; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3988270.
  6. Rickels K, Etemad B, Rynn MA, Lohoff FW, Mandos LA, Gallop R. Remission of generalized anxiety disorder after 6 months of open-label treatment with venlafaxine XR. Psychother Psychosom. 2013;82(6):363-71. doi: 10.1159/000351410.  Epub 2013 Sep 20. PubMed PMID: 24061331.
  7. Cooper AJ, Narasimhan S, Rickels K, Lohoff FW. Genetic polymorphisms in the PACAP and PAC1 receptor genes and treatment response to venlafaxine XR in generalized anxiety disorder. Psychiatry Res. 2013 Dec 30;210(3):1299-300. doi: 10.1016/j.psychres.2013.07.038. Epub 2013 Aug 22. PubMed PMID: 23972788.
  8. Cross-Disorder Group of the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium. Genetic relationship between five psychiatric disorders estimated from genome-wide SNPs.  Nat Genet. 2013 Sep;45(9):984-94. doi: 10.1038/ng.2711. Epub 2013 Aug 11. PubMed  PMID: 23933821; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3800159.
  9. Tiwari AK, Need AC, Lohoff FW, Zai CC, Chowdhury NI, Müller DJ, Putkonen A, Repo-Tiihonen E, Hallikainen T, Yağcıoğlu AE, Tiihonen J, Kennedy JL, Meltzer HY. Exome sequence analysis of Finnish patients with clozapine-induced agranulocytosis. Mol Psychiatry. 2014 Apr;19(4):403-5. doi: 10.1038/mp.2013.74. Epub 2013 Jun 11. PubMed PMID: 23752246.
  10. Cooper AJ, Rickels K, Lohoff FW. Association analysis between the A118G polymorphism in the OPRM1 gene and treatment response to venlafaxine XR in generalized anxiety disorder. Hum Psychopharmacol. 2013 May;28(3):258-62. doi: 10.1002/hup.2317. Epub 2013 May 8. PubMed PMID: 23658070.
  11. Crist RC, Clarke TK, Ang A, Ambrose-Lanci LM, Lohoff FW, Saxon AJ, Ling W, Hillhouse MP, Bruce RD, Woody G, Berrettini WH. An intronic variant in OPRD1 predicts treatment outcome for opioid dependence in African-Americans. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2013 Sep;38(10):2003-10. doi: 10.1038/npp.2013.99. Epub  2013 Apr 23. Erratum in: Neuropsychopharmacology. 2014 Mar;39(4):1039. PubMed PMID: 23612435; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3746708.
  12. Clarke TK, Crist RC, Kampman KM, Dackis CA, Pettinati HM, O'Brien CP, Oslin DW, Ferraro TN, Lohoff FW, Berrettini WH. Low frequency genetic variants in the μ-opioid receptor (OPRM1) affect risk for addiction to heroin and cocaine. Neurosci Lett. 2013 May 10;542:71-5. doi: 10.1016/j.neulet.2013.02.018. Epub 2013 Feb 20. PubMed PMID: 23454283; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3640707.
  13. Cross-Disorder Group of the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium. Identification of risk loci with shared effects on five major psychiatric disorders: a genome-wide analysis. Lancet. 2013 Apr 20;381(9875):1371-9. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(12)62129-1. Epub 2013 Feb 28. Erratum in: Lancet. 2013 Apr 20;381(9875):1360. PubMed PMID: 23453885; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3714010.
  14. Lohoff FW, Hodge R, Narasimhan S, Nall A, Ferraro TN, Mickey BJ, Heitzeg MM,  Langenecker SA, Zubieta JK, Bogdan R, Nikolova YS, Drabant E, Hariri AR, Bevilacqua L, Goldman D, Doyle GA. Functional genetic variants in the vesicular monoamine transporter 1 modulate emotion processing. Mol Psychiatry. 2014 Jan;19(1):129-39. doi: 10.1038/mp.2012.193. Epub 2013 Jan 22. PubMed PMID: 23337945.
  15. Multani PK, Hodge R, Estévez MA, Abel T, Kung H, Alter M, Brookshire B, Lucki I, Nall AH, Talbot K, Doyle GA, Lohoff FW. VMAT1 deletion causes neuronal loss in the hippocampus and neurocognitive deficits in spatial discrimination. Neuroscience. 2012 Nov 29;232C:32-44. doi: 10.1016/j.neuroscience.2012.11.023. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 23201251.
  16. Wetherill RR, Jagannathan K, Lohoff FW, Ehrman R, O'Brien CP, Childress AR, Franklin TR. Neural correlates of attentional bias for smoking cues: modulation by variance in the dopamine transporter gene. Addict Biol. 2014 Mar;19(2):294-304. doi: 10.1111/j.1369-1600.2012.00507.x. Epub 2012 Oct 12. PubMed PMID: 23061530; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4052978.
  17. Multani PK, Clarke TK, Narasimhan S, Ambrose-Lanci L, Kampman KM, Pettinati HM, Oslin DW, O'Brien CP, Berrettini WH, Lohoff FW. Neuronal calcium sensor-1 and cocaine addiction a genetic association study in African-Americans and European  Americans. Neurosci Lett. 2012 Nov 30;531(1):46-51. doi: 10.1016/j.neulet.2012.09.014. Epub 2012 Sep 20. PubMed PMID: 22999924; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3895491.
  18. Lohoff FW, Narasimhan S, Rickels K. Interaction between polymorphisms in serotonin transporter (SLC6A4) and serotonin receptor 2A (HTR2A) genes predict treatment response to venlafaxine XR in generalized anxiety disorder. Pharmacogenomics J. 2013 Oct;13(5):464-9. doi: 10.1038/tpj.2012.33. Epub 2012 Aug 21. PubMed PMID: 22907732.
  19. Crist RC, Ambrose-Lanci LM, Vaswani M, Clarke TK, Zeng A, Yuan C, Ferraro TN, Hakonarson H, Kampman KM, Dackis CA, Pettinati HM, O'Brien CP, Oslin DW, Doyle GA, Lohoff FW, Berrettini WH. Case-control association analysis of polymorphisms  in the δ-opioid receptor, OPRD1, with cocaine and opioid addicted populations. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2013 Jan 1;127(1-3):122-8. doi: 10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2012.06.023. Epub 2012 Jul 12. PubMed PMID: 22795689; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3509227.
  20. Clarke TK, Ambrose-Lanci L, Ferraro TN, Berrettini WH, Kampman KM, Dackis CA, Pettinati HM, O'Brien CP, Oslin DW, Lohoff FW. Genetic association analyses of PDYN polymorphisms with heroin and cocaine addiction. Genes Brain Behav. 2012 Jun;11(4):415-23. doi: 10.1111/j.1601-183X.2012.00785.x. Epub 2012 Apr 11. PubMed PMID: 22443215.
  21. Narasimhan S, Aquino TD, Multani PK, Rickels K, Lohoff FW. Variation in the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene and treatment response to venlafaxine XR in generalized anxiety disorder. Psychiatry Res. 2012 Jun 30;198(1):112-5. doi: 10.1016/j.psychres.2011.12.034. Epub 2012 Mar 13. PubMed PMID: 22417933.
  22. Lohoff FW, Aquino TD, Narasimhan S, Multani PK, Etemad B, Rickels K. Serotonin receptor 2A (HTR2A) gene polymorphism predicts treatment response to venlafaxine XR in generalized anxiety disorder. Pharmacogenomics J. 2013 Feb;13(1):21-6. doi: 10.1038/tpj.2011.47. Epub 2011 Oct 18. PubMed PMID: 22006095.
  23. Psychiatric GWAS Consortium Bipolar Disorder Working Group. Large-scale genome-wide association analysis of bipolar disorder identifies a new susceptibility locus near ODZ4. Nat Genet. 2011 Sep 18;43(10):977-83. doi: 10.1038/ng.943. Erratum in: Nat Genet. 2012 Sep;44(9):1072. Fullerton, Janice M [added]; Hyoun, Phil L [corrected to Lee, Phil H]; Meng, Fan Guo [corrected to Meng, Fan]. PubMed PMID: 21926972; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3637176.
  24. Clarke TK, Bloch PJ, Ambrose-Lanci LM, Ferraro TN, Berrettini WH, Kampman KM, Dackis CA, Pettinati HM, O'Brien CP, Oslin DW, Lohoff FW. Further evidence for association of polymorphisms in the CNR1 gene with cocaine addiction: confirmation in an independent sample and meta-analysis. Addict Biol. 2013 Jul;18(4):702-8. doi: 10.1111/j.1369-1600.2011.00346.x. Epub 2011 Jul 25. PubMed  PMID: 21790903; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3223560.
  25. Franklin TR, Wang Z, Li Y, Suh JJ, Goldman M, Lohoff FW, Cruz J, Hazan R, Jens W, Detre JA, Berrettini W, O'Brien CP, Childress AR. Dopamine transporter genotype modulation of neural responses to smoking cues: confirmation in a new cohort. Addict Biol. 2011 Apr;16(2):308-22. doi: 10.1111/j.1369-1600.2010.00277.x. Epub 2011 Feb 8. PubMed PMID: 21299752; PubMed  Central PMCID: PMC3348624.
  26. Wiener M, Lohoff FW, Coslett HB. Double dissociation of dopamine genes and timing in humans. J Cogn Neurosci. 2011 Oct;23(10):2811-21. doi: 10.1162/jocn.2011.21626. Epub 2011 Jan 24. PubMed PMID: 21261454.
  27. Rickels K, Etemad B, Khalid-Khan S, Lohoff FW, Rynn MA, Gallop RJ. Time to relapse after 6 and 12 months' treatment of generalized anxiety disorder with venlafaxine extended release. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2010 Dec;67(12):1274-81. doi:  10.1001/archgenpsychiatry.2010.170. PubMed PMID: 21135327.
  28. Smith EN, Bloss CS, Badner JA, Barrett T, Belmonte PL, Berrettini W, Byerley  W, Coryell W, Craig D, Edenberg HJ, Eskin E, Foroud T, Gershon E, Greenwood TA, Hipolito M, Koller DL, Lawson WB, Liu C, Lohoff F, McInnis MG, McMahon FJ, Mirel  DB, Murray SS, Nievergelt C, Nurnberger J, Nwulia EA, Paschall J, Potash JB, Rice J, Schulze TG, Scheftner W, Panganiban C, Zaitlen N, Zandi PP, Zöllner S, Schork  NJ, Kelsoe JR. Genome-wide association study of bipolar disorder in European American and African American individuals. Mol Psychiatry. 2009 Aug;14(8):755-63. doi: 10.1038/mp.2009.43. Epub 2009 Jun 2. PubMed PMID: 19488044; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3035981.
  29. Lohoff FW, Bloch PJ, Ferraro TN, Berrettini WH, Pettinati HM, Dackis CA, O'Brien CP, Kampman KM, Oslin DW. Association analysis between polymorphisms in the conserved dopamine neurotrophic factor (CDNF) gene and cocaine dependence. Neurosci Lett. 2009 Apr 10;453(3):199-203. doi: 10.1016/j.neulet.2009.02.026. Epub 2009 Feb 21. PubMed PMID: 19429035; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2680755.
  30. Lohoff FW, Weller AE, Bloch PJ, Nall AH, Ferraro TN, Kampman KM, Pettinati HM, Oslin DW, Dackis CA, O'Brien CP, Berrettini WH. Association between the catechol-O-methyltransferase Val158Met polymorphism and cocaine dependence. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2008 Dec;33(13):3078-84. doi: 10.1038/npp.2008.126. Epub 2008 Aug 13. PubMed PMID: 18704099; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2583214.
  31. Lohoff FW, Bloch PJ, Weller AE, Nall AH, Doyle GA, Buono RJ, Ferraro TN, Kampman KM, Pettinati HM, Dackis CA, Oslin DW, O'Brien CP, Berrettini WH. Genetic variants in the cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript gene (CARTPT) and cocaine dependence. Neurosci Lett. 2008 Aug 8;440(3):280-3. doi: 10.1016/j.neulet.2008.05.073. Epub 2008 May 24. PubMed PMID: 18572320; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2507865.
  32. Lohoff FW, Lautenschlager M, Mohr J, Ferraro TN, Sander T, Gallinat J. Association between variation in the vesicular monoamine transporter 1 gene on chromosome 8p and anxiety-related personality traits. Neurosci Lett. 2008 Mar 21;434(1):41-5. doi: 10.1016/j.neulet.2008.01.024. Epub 2008 Jan 16. PubMed PMID: 18249496.
  33. Lohoff FW, Sander T, Ferraro TN, Dahl JP, Gallinat J, Berrettini WH. Confirmation of association between the Val66Met polymorphism in the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) gene and bipolar I disorder. Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet. 2005 Nov 5;139B(1):51-3. PubMed PMID: 16152572.